Model 3M Toyoty: Muda, Mura, Muri

Kiedy by zapytać ludzi o wyjaśnienie terminu Lean Manufacturing w jednym zdaniu, większość by odpowiedziała: „eliminowanie marnotrawstwa". Powodem tego jest to, iż Słownik pojęć marnotrawstwo czyli Słownik pojęć Muda (z języka japońskiego) jest relatywnie proste do zidentyfikowania w organizacji. Niemniej jednak Słownik pojęć Muda nie jest jedynym „M" w pojęciu 3M wokół którego zbudowany został słynny Toyota Production System ( Słownik pojęć TPS) – pozostałe to: Słownik pojęć Mura czyli zmienność, nieregularność czy wariancja oraz Słownik pojęć Muri – przeciążenie / nadmiernie obciążenie pracą.

Te trzy „M" – Słownik pojęć Muda, Słownik pojęć Mura i Słownik pojęć Muri wzajemnie na siebie oddziałują. Niemniej jednak większość organizacji skupia się na eliminacji Mudy ponieważ mogą one być wykryte z użyciem różnych narzędzi ale również poprzez zwykłą obserwacje. Nieprzykuwanie uwagi do pozostałych „eMów" może prowadzić do problemów w dalszej perspektywie. Aby lepiej to zrozumieć pochylmy się nad typowym podejściem przy implementacji Lean:

  1. Redukcja zapasów
  2. Redukcja osób
  3. Redukcja marnotrawstwa w postaci „zbędnego ruchu" poprzez eliminacje zlej organizacji stanowisk pracy
  4. Czekanie na wzrost efektywności

Ostateczny wynik zwykle bywa przeciwieństwem zamierzonych efektów – często występuje nadmierne obciążenie pracą ( Słownik pojęć Muri) ponieważ zamówienia od klientów są nieregularne ( Słownik pojęć Mura). W przypadku kiedy nawet cykl pracy operatora i cykl pracy maszyny są w pełni zoptymalizowane niewielkie zachwianie wariancji w zamówieniach klienta spowodują powstanie wielu problemów. Już samo nadmiernie obciążenie ludzi i maszyn będzie powodowało wzrost ilości defektów oraz marnotrawstwa, co przecież było przyczynkiem do zainicjowania implementacji Lean – eliminacja Słownik pojęć Muda.

Aby zapobiec sytuacjom takim jak wyżej opisane, organizacja powinna skupić się na eliminacji wszystkich trzech „eM" jednocześnie, ale jak?

Słownik pojęć MUDA, Słownik pojęć marnotrawstwo, może być podzielone na osiem typów – 7 zdefiniowanych przez Toyota oraz dodatkowo wprowadzony typ – non utilized skills – niewykorzystywane umiejętności. W języku angielskim możliwe jest ułożenie akronimu DOWNTIME z pierwszych liter ich nazw:

  • Defects – defekty oraz związana z nimi konieczność wyprodukowania ponownie elementu, dokumentu
  • Słownik pojęć Overproduction – produkcja większej ilości niż jest to potrzebne
  • Waiting – bezczynność maszyn, ludzi, materiałów
  • Non-used Talent – strata polegającą na niewykorzystywaniu w pełni potencjału ludzi
  • Transport – niepotrzebne przemieszczanie produktów, materiałów, zapasów
  • Inventories – nadmierne zapasy materiałów, produktów
  • Motion – niepotrzebne przemieszczanie będące wynikiem zlej organizacji stanowisk pracy
  • Excess processing – nadmierna obróbka – wykonywanie niewnoszących wartości dodanej kroków procesu

Jest wiele dostępnych narzędzi do identyfikowania i minimalizowania marnotrawstwa wliczając w to Słownik pojęć Poka-Yoke, Słownik pojęć Kanban, Słownik pojęć Takt Time, Słownik pojęć SMED czy One piece flow.

Słownik pojęć MURA, nieregularność, może się objawiać w postaci fluktuacji w zamówieniach od klientów, czasów wytwarzania, wariancji czasów cykli pośród różnych operatorów. W środowisku produkcyjnym cechującym się wytwarzaniem małych ilości partii produktów a dużą ich różnorodnością ( Słownik pojęć greenfield) elastyczność jest dużo bardziej istotna niż w środowiskach produkujących duże ilości partie niezróżnicowanych produktów ( Słownik pojęć brownfield). Kiedy Słownik pojęć Mura nie jest zredukowana, zwiększa to prawdopodobieństwo wystąpienia Słownik pojęć Muri a co za tym idzie – Słownik pojęć Muda. Można zapobiegać Słownik pojęć Mura poprzez właściwe zarządzanie łańcuchem dostaw, zmianę projektu produktu oraz poprzez tworzenie zestandaryzowanej pracy dla wszystkich operatorów.

Słownik pojęć MURI, nadmierne obciążenie, może być efektem Słownik pojęć Mura oraz nadgorliwej walki z Słownik pojęć Muda w procesach. Objawia się często poprzez zwiększoną awaryjność maszyn oraz wzrostem nieobecności pracowników. Aby zoptymalizować użycie maszyn oraz zapewnić im prawidłową, bezpieczną prace należy wdrożyć tzw. Słownik pojęć TPM - Total Preventive Maintenance czyli Globalne zarządzanie utrzymaniem ruchu. Natomiast jeśli chodzi o pracowników to przede wszystkim główna uwaga powinna być skupiona na bezpieczeństwie we wszystkich procesach oraz zestandaryzowanych pracach.

Źródła:

[1] panview lean blog & management summaries

[2] Harvard business review : HBR.- Boston, Mass : Harvard Business School Publ. Corp, ISSN 0017-8012, ZDB-ID 23826. - Vol. 72.1994, 6, p. 154-173

Adam Skiba

Strona: Ten adres pocztowy jest chroniony przed spamowaniem. Aby go zobaczyć, konieczne jest włączenie obsługi JavaScript. Google Plus LinkedIn
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